C.G. (Kees) de Kruif

Professor of Applied Physical and Colloid Chemistry

Van 't Hoff Laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry
Debye Institute for Nanomaterial Science.
Utrecht University
H.R. Kruytgebouw, N-704
Padualaan 8
3584 CH Utrecht
The Netherlands

phone: +31-30-253 5000
fax: +31-30-253 3870




Research Strategist

NIZO food research bv
Kernhemseweg 2
6710 BA Ede,
The Netherlands

phone: +31-318659 511



Biographical Information

2005 - Present

Research Strategist at NIZO food research bv (Nederlands Instituut voor Zuivel Onderzoek).

1998 - Present

Part time professor at the van 't Hoff Laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry.

1990 - 2005

Head of the Product Technology Department at NIZO food research bv.

1981 - 1990

Assistant professor (UHD) at the van 't Hoff Laboratory.

1971 - 1981

Assistant professor (U(H)D) at the Chemical Thermodynamics Group, department of chemistry, Utrecht University.

1967 - 1971

PhD-thesis at the Chemical Thermodynamics Group, department of chemistry, Utrecht University.

Research Interests

Self assembly of proteins

Proteins may self-assembly into micelles, fibrils and regular structures like octahedral and helical structures. Caseins form micelles and whey proteins when heated far away from the isolelectrical point assemble into fibrils. Enzymatically modified alpha lactalbumin forms protein nanotubes (see picture). These structures are of scientific interest but may also have practical applications as scaffolds, templates, viscosifier and for encapsulation. Proteins form complexes with oppositely charged polysaccharides/polyelectrolytes. These complexes are called complex coacervates and are of interest for encapsulation, protein purification and as structure builders. Recent work was on the complex coacervates of oppositely charged proteins such as lactoferrin plus caseins and beta-lactoglobulin

Caseins and casein micelles

Caseins in milk are self-assembled into 100nm radius structures called casein micelles. These complex micelles consist of 4 different casein proteins and contain calcium phosphate nanoclusters which are dispersed through the protein matrix. The casein micelles can be dissociated and reassembled e.g. by applying a high pressure. The stability and the mechanisms of dissociation and association are of interest for food stability.

Cool Pictures

Milk carton
Milk Carton with colloids in milk

Cover page of Langmuir with drawing of coacervates
Cover page of Langmuir with drawing of coacervates see thesis of Fanny Weinbreck

Whey protein Gum Arabic Coacervates
Whey protein Gum Arabic Coacervates

Casein micelle in milk see paper 250

Colloidal gas-liquid equilibrium

alfa lac nanotube
alpha lac nanotube. See thesis of Joanke Graveland-Bikker

List of selected publications (2006-2014)

Click here for a "complete" list of publications. If you would you like to receive a PDF-file of a paper listed below, please send your request to C.G.deKruif@chem.uu.nl or Kees.DeKruif@icloud.com and mention the number of the article.


258 Skelte G. Anema, C.G. (Kees) de Kruif

Complex coacervates of lactotransferrin and β-lactoglobulin

Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (2014)


256 C.G. (Kees) de Kruif, Skelte G. Anema, Jacky Changjun, Palatasa Havea, Christina Coker

Water holding capacity and swelling of casein gels


255 C.G. (Kees) de Kruif

The structure of casein micelles: A review of small angle scattering data.

Submitted to J.Applied Crystallography 2014


252 C.G. (Kees) de Kruif, JanSkov Pedersen, Thom Huppertz, Skelte G. Anema

Coacervates of Lactotransferrin and β- or κ-Casein, structure determined using SAXS.

dx.doi.org/10.1021/la402236f | Langmuir 2013, 29, 10483−10490


250 Cornelis G. de Kruif, Thom Huppertz, Volker S. Urban, Andrei V. Petukhov

Casein micelles and their internal structure.

Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 171172 (2012) 3652


249 C. G. (Kees) de Kruif and Thom Huppertz

Casein Micelles: Size Distribution in Milks from Individual Cows

dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf301397w | J. Agric. Food Chem. 2012, 60, 4649−4655


248 A.Chojnicka-Paszun, H.H.J. de Jongh, C.G. de Kruif

Sensory perception and lubrication properties of milk: Influence of fat content

International Dairy Journal 26 (2012) 15-22


246 Skelte G. Anema and C. G. (Kees) de Kruif

Co-acervates of lactoferrin and caseins

Soft Matter, 2012, 8, 4471


245 Skelte G. Anema and C. G. (Kees) de Kruif

Interaction of Lactoferrin and Lysozyme with Casein Micelles

dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm200978k | Biomacromolecules 2011, 12, 3970−3976




238 Graveland-Bikker, J.F., Koning, R., Koerten, H., Geels, R., Heeren, R. & de Kruif, C.G.

alfa-Lactalbumin self-assembles via beta-sheet stacking.

Soft Matter 2009 (5) 2020-2026


233 Thom Huppertz, Mary A. Smiddy and Cornelis G. de Kruif

Biocompatible Micro-Gel Particles from Cross-Linked Casein

Micelles. Biomacromolecules 2007, 8, 1300-1305


227 Huppertz T, Fox PF, De Kruif CG & Kelly AL High pressure-induced changes in bovine milk proteins: a review. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Proteins and Proteomics. 1764, 2006, 593-598

226 M. A. Smiddy, J.-E. G. H. Martin, A. L. Kelly, C. G. de Kruif, and T. Huppertz Stability of Casein Micelles Cross-Linked by Transglutaminase Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 89 No. 6, 2006,1-9

225 Graveland-Bikker, J.F., Schaap, I.A.T, Schmidt, C.F and de Kruif, C.G., Structural and mechanical study of self-assembling protein nanotubes.
Nano Letters (2006), 6, 616-621

224 J.F. Graveland-Bikker and C.G. de Kruif.
Chapter 8 TIFS (Nestle meeting) Unique milk protein based nanotubes: Food and nanotechnology meet Trends in Food Science & Technology 17 (2006) 196–203

223 Graveland-Bikker, J.F., Fritz. G., Glatter, O. & de Kruif, C.G. Growth and structure of alpha-lactalbumin nanotubes.
J.Appl. Chryst. (2006), 39, 180-184.

216 Cornelis.G. de Kruif, Fanny Weinbreck, Renko de Vries.
Complex coacervation of proteins and anionic polysaccharides. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 9, 2004, 340-349

211 F. Weinbreck, H.S. Rollema, H.R. Tromp, C.G. de Kruif. Diffusivity of whey/ protein and gum arabic in their coacervates. (chapter 7) Langmuir 2004, 20, 6389-6395.

208 Johanna F. Graveland-Bikker, Richard Ipsen, Jeanette Otte, and Cornelis G. de Kruif. Influence of calcium on the self assembly of partially hydrolysed a-lactalbumin. Langmuir 20, 2004, 6841-6846

207 R.H. Tromp, C.G. de Kruif, M. van Eijk, C. Rolin On the mechanism of stabilisation of acidified milk drinks by pectin Food Hydrocolloids 18, 2004, 565-572.

205 Astrid J.Vasbinder, Fred van de Velde, Cornelis G. de Kruif. Gelation of Casein Whey protein Mixtures J Dairy Sci. 87, 2004, 1167-1176

202 J. Vasbinder, A.C. Alting, C.G. de Kruif Quantification of heat-induced casein_/whey protein interactions in milk and its relation to gelation kinetics. Colloids and Surfaces B 31,2003,115-123

195 R. Tuinier, J. Rieger, C.G. de Kruif Depletion-induced phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures [Review] Advances in Colloid and Interface Science 103, 2003, 1-31

194 L.M. Mikheeva, N.V. Grinberg, V.Ya. Grinberg, A.R. Khokhlov, C.G. de Kruif Thermodynamics of micellization of bovine -casein studied by high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry Langmuir 19, 2003, 2913-2921

188 C.Holt, C.G. de Kruif, R. Tuinier, P.A. Timmins. Substructure of bovine casein micelles by small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering Colloids and Surfaces A 213, 2003, 275-284

187 E. ten Grotenhuis, R. Tuinier, C.G. de Kruif Phase stability of concentrated dairy products Journal of Dairy Science 86, 2003, 764-769

184 J. E. O'Connell, V.Ya. Grinberg, C.G. de Kruif Association behaviour of beta-casein J Colloid Interface Science, 258, 2003, 33-39

183 Arno C. Alting, Mireille weijers, Els H. A. de Hoog Anne M. van de Pijpekamp, Martien A. Cohen Stuart, Rob J. Hamer, Cornelis G. de Kruif And Ronald W. Visschers. Acid induced cold gelation of globular proteins: Effects of protein aggregate characteristics and disulfide bonding on rheological properties. J Agric. Food chem. 2004, 52, 623-631

179 C.G. de Kruif, V.Y. Grinberg Micellisation of beta-casein Colloids and Surfaces A 210, 2002, 183-190

173 T. V. Burova, N. V. Grinberg, R. W. Visschers, V. Y. Grinberg, C. G. de Kruif Thermodynamic stability of porcine b-lactoglobulin: A structural relevance Eur.J. Biochem.
260, 3958-3968,2002

172 F.J. Hoedemaeker, R.W. Visschers, A.C. Alting, C.G. de Kruif, M.E. Kuil, J.P. Abrahams.
A novel pH-dependent dimerization motif in b-lactoglobulin from pig (Sus scrofa). Acta Crystallographica, Section D: Biological Crystallography (2002), D58(3), 480-486.

171 R. Tuinier and C.G. de Kruif Stability of casein micelles in milk. Journal of Chemical Physics (2002), 117(3), 1290-1295.

170 C.G. de Kruif, R. Tuinier, C. Holt, P.A. Timmins, H.S. Rollema Physicochemical Study of k- and b-Casein Dispersions and the Effect of Cross-Linking by Transglutaminase, Langmuir, (2002), 18(12), 4885-4891

169 L. Ragona, F. Fogolari, L. Zetta, D.M. Perez, P. Puyol, C.G. de Kruif, F. Lohr, H. Ruterjans, H. Molinari. Bovine ?-lactoglobulin: interaction studies with palmitic acid. Protein Sci. (2000), 9(7), 1347-1356.

165 V. Langendorff, G. Cuvelier, C. Michon, B. Launay, A. Parker, C.G. de Kruif Stability and gelation of carrageenan + skim milk mixtures: influence of temperature and carrageenan type. Special Publication - Royal Society of Chemistry (2001), 258 (Food Colloids), 404-412.

164 A.J. Vasbinder, P.J.J.M. van Mil, A. Bot, C.G. de Kruif Acid-induced gelation of heat-treated milk studied by diffusing wave spectroscopy. Colloids and Surfaces, B: Biointerfaces (2001), 21(1-3), 245-250.

163 V.Y. Grinberg, N.V. Grinberg, A.I. Usov, N.P. Shusharina, A.R. Khokhlov, C.G. de Kruif Thermodynamics of conformational ordering of i-carrageenan in KCl solutions using high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry. Biomacromolecules (2001), 2 (3), 864-873.

161 J. E. O'Connell, A. L Kelly,. P. F. Fox, C.G. de Kruif Mechanism for the Ethanol-Dependent Heat-Induced Dissociation of Casein Micelles. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2001), 49(9), 4424-4428

159 C.G. de Kruif and R. Tuinier Polysaccharide Protein interaction Food Hydrocolloids, 2001, 15, 555-563

158 C.G. de Kruif and C. Holt Casein Micelle Structure, Functions and Interactions Advanced Dairy Chemistry, Volume 1, Proteins, Third Edition A ,Chapter 5 Ed. P.F.Fox and P.L.H. McSweeney Kluwer Academic, New York, (2003).

151 C.G. de Kruif Attractive interactions and aggregation in food dispersions. In: Food Emulsions and Foams. Interfaces, interactions and stability. Eds R. Dickinson and J.M. Rodriquez Patino. The Royal Society of Chemistry, 1999, 29-44.

144 M.E.van Marle, D. van den Ende, C.G. de Kruif J.Mellema. Steady-shear viscosity of stirred yoghurts with varying ropiness.
J Rheology 43, 1999, 1643-1662

143 R. Tuinier, E. ten Grotenhuis, C.G. de Kruif.
The effect of depolymerised guar gum on the stability of skim milk Food Hydrocolloids 2000, 14,1-7

142 R. Tuinier, C. Holt, P.A. Timmins, C.G. de Kruif Small-angle neutron scattering of aggregated whey protein colloids with an exocellular Polysaccharide.J Appl. Cryst. 2000,33, 540-543

140 F. Fogolari, L. Ragona, L. Zetta, S. Romagnoli, K.G. de Kruif, H. Molinari Monomeric bovine ?-lactoglobulin adopts a ?-barrel fold at pH 2. FEBS Letters 436 (1998) 149-154

139 V. Langendorff, G. Cuvelier, B. Launay, C. Michon, A. Parker, C.G. de Kruif Effect of carrageenan type on the behaviour of carrageenan/milk mixtures. Food Hydrocolloids 14 (2000), 273-280

137 R. Tuinier, J.K.G Dhont C.G. de Kruif Depletion-Induced Phase Separation of Aggregated Whey Protein Colloids by an Exocellular Polysaccharide Langmuir 16, 2000,1-11

136 R. Tuinier, C.G. de Kruif Phase separation creaming and network formation of oil-in-water emulsions induced by an exocellular polysaccharide. J Colloid Interface Sci., 218, (1999), 201-210

135 R. Tuinier, C.G. de Kruif Phase behaviour of casein micelles/exocellular polysaccharide mixtures: Experiment and theory J.Chem Phys 110,(1999) 9296-9304.

132 R. Tuinier, P. Zoon, M.A. Cohen Stuart, G.J. Fleer, C.G. de Kruif Concentration and shear-rate dependence of an exocellular polysaccharide, Biopolymers 50 (1999) 641.

128 M. Verheul, J.S. Pedersen, S.P.F.M. Roefs, C.G. de Kruif Association behaviour of native ?-lactoglobulin. Biopolymers 49 (1999) 11-20

127 M. Verheul, S.P.F.M. Roefs, J. Mellema, C.G. de Kruif Power law behavior of structural properties of protein gels. Langmuir 14 (1998) 2263-2268.

125 C.G. de Kruif Casein micelle interactions. Int.Dairy J. 9,1999,183-188
124 M. Verheul, S.P.F.M. Roefs, C.G. de Kruif Kinetics of heat-induced aggregation of ?-lactoglobulin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46 (1998) 896-903.

122 M.A.M. Hoffmann, J.C. van Miltenburg, J.P. van der Eerden, P.J.J.M. van Mil, C.G. de Kruif Isothermal and scanning calorimetry measurements on b-lactoglobulin. J. Phys. Chem. B 101 (1997) 6988-6994.

118 C.G. de Kruif Skim milk acidification. J. Coll. Interface Sci. 185 (1997) 19-25

112 C.G. de Kruif, E.B. Zhulina ?-casein as a polyelectrolyte brush on the surface of casein micelles. Colloids and Surfaces A: 117 (1996) 151-159.

104 S.P.F.M. Roefs, C.G. de Kruif A model for the denaturation and aggregation of b-lactoglobulin. Eur. J. Biochem. 226 (1994) 883-889.

102 A.T.J.M. Woutersen, J. Mellema, C. Blom, C.G. de Kruif Linear viscoelasticity in dispersions of adhesive hard spheres. J. Chem. Phys. 101 (1994) 542-553.

97 A.T.J.M. Woutersen, R.P. May, C.G. de Kruif The equilibrium microstructure of adhesive hard sphere dispersions: a small-angle neutron scattering study. J. Coll. Interface Sci. 151 (1992) 410-420

96 T.J.M. Jeurnink, C.G. de Kruif Changes in milk on heating: viscosity measurements. J. Dairy Res. 60 (1993) 139-150.

94 C.G. de Kruif Casein micelles: diffusivity as a function of renneting time. Langmuir 8 (1992) 2932-2937

93 C.G. de Kruif The turbidity of renneted skim milk. J. Coll. Interface Sci. 156 (1993) 38-42.

90 C.G. de Kruif, T.J.M. Jeurnink, P. Zoon The viscosity of milk during the initial stages of renneting. Neth. Milk Dairy J. 46 (1992) 123-137.

89 C.G. de Kruif, R.P. May k-Casein micelles: structure, interaction and gelling studied by small-angle neutron scattering. Eur. J. Biochem. 200 (1991) 431-436.

88 A.T.J.M. Woutersen, C.G. de Kruif The rheology of adhesive hard-sphere dispersions. J. Chem. Phys. 94 (1991) 5739-5750.

86 M.H.G. Duits, R.P. May, A. Vrij, C.G. de Kruif Small-angle neutron scattering of concentrated adhesive-hard-sphere dispersions. Langmuir 7 (1991) 62-68

83 C.G. de Kruif, J.C. van Miltenburg Phase transitions in sterically stabilized silica colloids studied by adiabatic calorimetry. J. Chem. Phys. 93 (1990) 6865-6869

77 C.G. de Kruif, J.A. Schouten Pressure-induced phase transition in sterically stabilized colloids. J. Chem. Phys. 92 (1990) 6098-6103

73 P.W. Rouw, C.G. de Kruif Adhesive hard-sphere colloidal dispersions: fractal structures and fractal growth in silica dispersions. Physical Review A 39 (1989) 5399-5408.

72 P.W. Rouw, A.T.J.M. Woutersen, B.J. Ackerson, C.G. de Kruif Adhesive hard sphere dispersions. V. Observation of spinodal decomposition in a colloidal dispersion. Physica A 156 (1989) 876-898

71 J.C. van der Werff, C.G. de Kruif Hard-sphere colloidal dispersions: the scaling of rheological properties with particle size, volume fraction, and shear rate. J. Rheology 33 (1989) 421-454.

69 C.G. de Kruif, P.W. Rouw, W.J. Briels, M.H.G. Duits, A. Vrij, R.P. May Adhesive hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. A small-angle neutron-scattering study of stickiness and the structure factor. Langmuir 5 (1989) 422-428.

67 B.J. Ackerson, C.G. de Kruif, N.J. Wagner, W.B. Russel Comparison of small shear flow rate-small wave vector static structure factor data with theory. J. Chem. Phys. 90 (1989) 3250-3253

66 J.C. van der Werff, C.G. de Kruif, C. Blom, J. Mellema Linear viscoelastic behavior of dense hard-sphere dispersions. Physical Review A 39 (1989) 795-807.

58 C.G. de Kruif, W.J. Briels, R.P. May, A. Vrij Hard-sphere colloidal silica dispersions. The structure factor determined with SANS. Langmuir 4 (1988) 668-676.

54 C.G. de Kruif, J.W. Jansen, A. Vrij Sterically stabilized silica colloid as a model supramolecular fluid. In: S.A. Safran, N.A. Clark (eds.), Physics of complex and supermolecular fluids. New York: Wiley, 1987, p. 315-343.

49 J.W. Jansen, C.G. de Kruif, A. Vrij Attractions in sterically stabilized silica dispersions. I. Theory of phase separation. J. Coll. Interface Sci. 114 (1986) 471-480

47 D. Frenkel, R.J. Vos, C.G. de Kruif, A. Vrij Structure factors of polydisperse systems of hard spheres: a comparison of Monte Carlo simulations and Percus-Yevick theory. J. Chem. Phys. 84 (1986) 4625-4630.

45 C.G. de Kruif, E.M.F. van Iersel, A. Vrij, W.B. Russel Hard sphere colloidal dispersions: viscosity as a function of shear rate and volume fraction. J. Chem. Phys. 83 (1985) 4717-4725.

38 P.J. van Ekeren, M.H.G. Jacobs, J.C.A. Offringa, A. Schuijff, C.G. de Kruif The evaporation coefficient of trans-diphenylethene at variable undersaturation: a new technique making use of special effusion cells. J. Chem. Phys. 79 (1983) 2018-2022.

31 H.G.M. de Wit, J.C. van Miltenburg, C.G. de Kruif Thermodynamic properties of molecular organic crystals containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulphur. I. Vapour pressures and enthalpies of sublimation. J. Chem. Thermodynamics 15 (1983) 651-663.

28 C.G. de Kruif, J.C. van Miltenburg, A.J.J. Sprenkels, G. Stevens, W. de Graaf, H.G.M. de Wit Thermodynamic properties of citric acid and the system citric acid-water. Thermochimica Acta 58 (1982) 341-354

26 C.G. de Kruif The vapor phase dissociation of ammonium salts: ammonium halides, ammonium rhodanide, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium bicarbonate. J. Chem. Phys. 77 (1982) 6247-6250

19 C.G. de Kruif, A.C.G. van Genderen, J.C.W.G. Bink, H.A.J.Oonk Properties of mixed crystalline organic material prepared by zone levelling. II. Vapour pressures and excess Gibbs energies of (p-dichlorobenzene + p-dibromobenzene). J. Chem. Thermodynamics 13 (1981) 457-463.

12 C.H.D. Calis-van Ginkel, G.H.M Calis, C.W.M. Timmermans, C.G. de Kruif, H.A.J. Oonk Enthalpies of sublimation and dimerization in the vapour phase of formic, acetic, propanoic and butanoic acids. J. Chem. Thermodynamics 10 (1978) 1083-1088.

10 C.G. de Kruif, C.H.D. van Ginkel Torsion-weighing effusion vapour-pressure measurements on organic compounds. Chem. Thermodynamics 9 (1977) 725-730.

5 C.G. de Kruif, C.H.D. van Ginkel, A. Langenberg Vapour pressure and thermodynamic function changes of mercury. Recueil 92 (1973) 599-600.

Copyright Notice: The documents posted here are for non-commercial, personal use only. Copyright of the papers belongs to the authors or the publishers of the journals or conference proceedings in which the papers appeared.

Kees in Hoe?Zo! on Radio 747 AM

Hoe?Zo! is a so called "popular scientific" broadcast on Radio 747 AM. It is broadcasted from Monday to Friday between 13:00 and 14:00 PM. One item of this radio program is the "scientific chain-question". A scientist working in any field answers a question and leaves a question of his/her interest for the next broadcast. Below are three fragments of this radio program in which the question, raised by G. Koper (Technical University Delft, Netherlands), can we make milk that contains carbon dioxide (because maybe then children would drink more milk). I answered this issue and my subsequent question was why doesn't a language within a small community of a group of emigrated people hardly change?


Last modified: 25th of June, 2014.